Sideways and Clockwise
A reader seeks to understand two uses of the English word wise:
Can you please suggest how can we use the word “wise”. The meaning of “wise” is related to wisdom (Having or prompted by wisdom or discernment).
But some times I use this when some thing needs to be done in a way. for e.g. day wise, company wise, team wise and so on.
Old English had two similarly spelled words derived from the same ProtoGermanic source:
wis: learned, wise
wise: manner, way
It also had two verbs from the same source:
witan: to know
wisian: to direct or to guide
The word wise in the sense of “manner” survived in two suffix forms: -wise and -ways, giving us such words as always, sideways, likewise and otherwise.
Here’s Fowler’s note on these suffixes:
1. The ending -ways or occasionally -way, is often used indifferently with -wise, & is very seldom the only form without one in -wise by its side–perhaps only in always.
2. In a few established words, -wise is alone, esp. clockwise, coastwise, likewise, otherwise, sunwise.
3. In other established words both forms are used, as breadth-, broad-, end-, least-, length-, long-, no-, side-, slant-.
4. In words made for the occasion from nouns, as in Use it clubwise or pokerwise, Go crabwise or frogwise, Worn cloakwise or broochwise or chainwise . . , -wise is now much the commoner.
Fowler was writing about 80 years ago, but his observations remain valid.
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