This post is in response to a reader’s email:
Please I want to know the usage of many and much.
Both words have more than one function in English, but a common challenge for ESL learners is how to use many and much with countable and uncountable nouns.
Countable nouns have singular and plural forms.
Countable nouns are so called because they can be counted as individual items. Many, in the sense of “a large and indefinite number,” is used with countable nouns:
Uncountable nouns are construed as singular. They are not used with a number. Much, in the sense of “a great amount of,” is used to qualify uncountable nouns:
The word much can also function as an adverb and as a pronoun:
Thank you very much.
I am much indebted to you.
Julie scored much higher on the exam than I did.
Much of our success derives from teamwork.
Though much is taken, much abides.
He’s not much to look at.
In the plural, many can be used as a pronoun in the sense of “many individuals”:
He is only one candidate among many.
Among their captives are many of our nation.
Many are called, but few are chosen.
Governed by the article the, many can be used as a noun to designate “the masses,” “the multitude,” “the general public,” or “the hoi polloi”:
Until that happens, the few practice lawful plunder upon the many.
The needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few.
Making the Economy Work for the Many, Not the Few
Note: “The few,” in the sense of “a small, privileged elite” is often used as the opposite of “the many.”