50 Redundant Phrases to Avoid

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In conversation, it’s easy in the midst of spontaneous speech to succumb to verbosity and duplication. In writing, redundancy is less forgivable but fortunately easy to rectify. Watch out for these usual suspects:

1. Absolutely certain or sure/essential/guaranteed: Someone who is certain or sure is already without doubt. Something that is essential is intrinsically absolute. A guarantee is by nature absolute (or should be). Abandon absolutely in such usage.

2. Actual experience/fact: An experience is something that occurred (unless otherwise indicated). A fact is something confirmed to have happened. Actual is extraneous in these instances.

3. Add an additional: To add is to provide another of something. Additional is extraneous.

4. Added bonus: A bonus is an extra feature, so added is redundant.

5. Advance notice/planning/reservations/warning: Notices, planning, reservations, and warnings are all, by their nature, actions that occur before some event, so qualifying such terms with advance is superfluous.

6. As for example: As implies that an example is being provided, so omit “an example.”

7. Ask a question: To ask is to pose a question, so question is redundant.

8. At the present time: “At present” means “at this time,” so avoid the verbose version.

9. Basic fundamentals/essentials: Fundamentals and essentials are by their nature elementary, so remove basic from each phrase.

10. (Filled to) capacity: Something filled is done so to capacity, so describing something as “filled to capacity” is repetitive.

11. Came at a time when: When provides the necessary temporal reference to the action of coming; “at a time” is redundant.

12. Close proximity/scrutiny: Proximity means “close in location,” and scrutiny means “close study,” so avoid qualifying these terms with close.

13. Collaborate/join/meet/merge together: If you write of a group that collaborates or meets together, you imply that there’s another way to collect or confer. To speak of joining or merging together is, likewise, redundant.

14. Completely filled/finished/opposite: Something that is filled or finished is thoroughly so; completely is redundant. Something that is opposite isn’t necessarily diametrically opposed, especially in qualitative connotations, but the modifier is still extraneous.

15. Consensus of opinion: A consensus is an agreement but not necessarily one about an opinion, so “consensus of opinion” is not purely redundant, but the phrase “of opinion” is usually unnecessary.

16. (During the) course (of): During means “in or throughout the duration of”), so “during the course of” is repetitive.

17. Definite decision: Decisions may not be final, but when they are made, they are unequivocal and therefore definite, so one should not be described as “a definite decision.”

18. Difficult dilemma: A dilemma is by nature complicated, so omit difficult as a modifier.

19. Direct confrontation: A confrontation is a head-on conflict. Direct as a qualifier in this case is redundant.

20. End result: A result is something that occurs at the end, so omit end as a modifier of result.

21. Enter in: To enter is to go in, so throw in out.

22. Estimated at about/roughly: An estimate is an approximation. About and roughly are superfluous.

23. False pretense: A pretense is a deception, so false is redundant.

24. Few in number: Few refers to a small number; do not qualify few with the modifier “in number.”

25. Final outcome: An outcome is a result and is therefore intrinsically final.

26. First began, new beginning: A beginning is when something first occurs, so first and new are superfluous terms in these cases.

27. For a period/number of days: Days is plural, so a duration is implied; “a period of” or “a number of” is redundant. It’s better to specify the number of days or to generalize with many.

28. Foreign imports: Imports are products that originate in another country, so their foreign nature is implicit and the word foreign is redundant.

29. Forever and ever: Ever is an unnecessary reduplication of forever.

30. Free gift: A gift is by definition free (though cynics will dispute that definition), so free is extraneous.

31. Invited guests: Guests are intrinsically those who have an invitation, so invited is redundant.

32. Major breakthrough: A breakthrough is a significant progress in an effort. Though major is not directly redundant, the notable nature of the event is implicit.

33. [Number] a.m. in the morning/p.m. in the evening: The abbreviations a.m. and p.m. already identify the time of day, so omit “in the morning” or “in the evening.”

34. Past history/record: A history is by definition a record of past occurrences, and a record is documentation of what has already happened. In both cases, past is redundant.

35. Plan ahead: To plan is to prepare for the future. Ahead is extraneous.

36. Possibly might: Might indicates probability, so omit the redundant qualifier possibly.

37. Postpone until later: To postpone is to delay. Later is superfluous.

38. Protest against: To protest is to communicate opposition. Against is redundant.

39. Repeat again: To repeat is to reiterate an action, so again is unnecessary.

40. Revert back: Something that reverts returns to an earlier state. Back is superfluous.

41. Same identical: Same and identical are just that (and that). Omit same as a qualifier for identical.

42. Since the time when: Since indicates a time in the past; “the time when” is superfluous.

43. Spell out in detail: To spell out is to provide details, so “in detail” is repetitive.

44. Still remains: Something that remains is still in place. Still is redundant.

45. Suddenly exploded: An explosion is an immediate event. It cannot be any more sudden than it is.

46. Therapeutic treatment: Treatment in the sense of medical care is by nature therapeutic, so the adjective is redundant.

47. Unexpected surprise: No surprise is expected, so the modifier is extraneous.

48. Unintended mistake: A mistake is an inadvertently erroneous action. The lack of intention is implicit.

49. Usual custom: A custom is something routinely and repeatedly done or observed, and usual is redundant.

50. Written down: Something written has been taken down. Down is superfluous.

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80 thoughts on “50 Redundant Phrases to Avoid”

  1. Some time redundancy is to add emphasis or to the reduce the chance of incorrect interpretations.

    Communication is not just about saying the right words it is also about being rightly understood.

  2. I guess you are not a scientist as the point about an outcome and result reveals a certain cluelessness.

    20. end result
    25. final outcome

    You can of course have preliminarily results which are not final.
    You suggest not using qualifiers such as “end” or “final” as if results or outcomes are automatically final.

    If only, my friend, if only the world were so simple.

    You can certainly have preliminary results which indicate a trend but which are not final. No need to be a scientist, just think of elections 🙂

  3. Sometimes when I watch a trailer, I see this warning: “may contain content inappropiate for children”, ins’t this redundant? Shouldn’t it be “may include content” or “may contain audiovisual material”. Who approved that nonsense?

  4. Maybe it should have been clarified that many of these are not redundant when making comparisons. As mentioned above, you can describe someone climbing up and climbing down, but if you are describing someone only climbing up, it is sufficient to just say climbing; nobody would be confused as to the direction someone climbed.

  5. Number 39:
    “To repeat is to reiterate an action”. Ironically, your use of reiterate is itself redundant. In this case the word iterate is more appropriate.

    You _can_ repeat an action again, if you have already repeated it. In which case, reiterate may be appropriate.

  6. Another redundancy that bothers me is “very unique”
    or I once heard someone say “extremely unique”

  7. While it is important to keep these in mind and not repeat them mindlessly, I don’t completely agree with this list:

    From my perspective some of the phrases are clearly wrong:
    “Added Bonus”
    “Foreign imports”

    Some should not be on the list as they can be context appropriate
    “End result”: A larger activity can have smaller activities that have results. Those results can be considered as results of the larger activity, however, the larger activity will have an end result.
    “While the preliminary tests came up positive (this is the result of the preliminary tests), the end result was a clean bill of health.”

    “Ask a question”. You can asks for: a favour, a clarification, change, compassion, etc. Not always a question.

    Some are used as “Decorators” that add effect or intention to a word. The context needs to be considered.
    “Major breakthrough”: “Breakthrough” objective: overcome an obstruction. “Major” is relative. This is why context is relevant in this case. “Giving her first steps is a breakthrough for any child, but for Mary, it was a major breakthrough after her accident”

  8. Lawyers love using this one: “above captioned.”

    If it is captioned, it is above. It is above in a document caption, it is captioned. Try putting a caption somewhere else.

  9. “Comprised of” so irks me. To “comprise” means “to consist of,” so the phrase “comprised of” means “consists of of.”

  10. Raul Suarez writes, “Ask a question”. You can asks for: a favour, a clarification, change, compassion, etc. Not always a question.

    Sigh. These are ALL questions. You are incorrect Mr. Suarez.

    The lack of logic from some posters here is depressing.

    One writes, “Some of these examples are just plain wrong anyway. Like “invited guests” supposedly being a redundancy because guests are by nature invited. Not true. There is such a thing as an unexpected guest.

    Another, Frank Bonham writes, “Invited guest is also valid. Nowhere in the definition of guest is the word invitation. If I show up at your house and you allow me to enter, I am a guest whether you invited me or not.”

    Someone becomes a guest as soon as they are permitted entry. Being expected or unexpected is irrelevant.

    Invited guest is a redundant phrase. No question.

  11. We, the people of the United States, in order to form a MORE PERFECT union. There is no greater degree of ‘perfect.’ Even the authors of the US Constitution were guilty of redundancy!

  12. In general, any form of the word utilize, or usage can be substituted with the less pretentious word “use.”

    The word “articulate” is often used when “describe” would be more appropriate. Articulation is generally a mechanical description.

  13. The phrase “live life” is nails on a chalkboard for me. I also cringe at “the thing is, is”.
    Other peeves include “chase after” and “crave for”.

  14. If I’m in the same room with someone we are proximity to each other. If she’s sitting on my lap we’re in close proximity to each other.

  15. Many of the phrases mentioned in the article–and the comments–are often hackneyed, but not necessarily from the Department of Redundancy Department.

    “Invited guest is a redundant phrase. No question.”
    Ever hear of an “uninvited guest”?

    “Something that is filled or finished is thoroughly so; completely is redundant.”
    Also wrong. “Fill” is to put something into something. Something can very much be “partially filled” or “filled half-way.”

    “Usual custom: A custom is something routinely and repeatedly done or observed, and usual is redundant.”
    A “custom” is a manner or sequence of actions. If this custom is in a place where everyone does it–like asking, “Have you eaten?”in China–it’s a “usual custom.” Take that same custom and put it in America and it becomes and “unusual” custom. “Usual custom” is only redundant if it’s common to, and being talked about, by the same majority.

    “End result: A result is something that occurs at the end, so omit end as a modifier of result.”
    Processes can be broken into stages, and each stage can have its own “intermediate result.”

    “Repeat again: To repeat is to reiterate an action, so again is unnecessary.”
    If I want you to say it once, I ask you to “repeat” it. If once wasn’t enough, I ask you to “repeat again.” If I still don’t catch what you’re saying, I’ll ask you to “repeat yet again.”

    And so on and so forth.
    In fact, on further review, I’d say that most of these “redundant phrases to avoid” are more the author’s lack of understanding of the subtleties of the English language than useful guides for aspiring writers.

  16. Elizabeth, what about “Strategic plan”? Do you not like a “tactical plan”? Or do you expect that the only thing I can do “strategically” is plan?

  17. Love this list! Will pass it on to all my writing groups.
    I have one that I hear all the time and which, when I was working in sports journalism, was drummed into me:
    He set a new world record in the 800 metres
    He set a world record in the 800 metres
    I know people will say it gives added emphasis but it is really redundant.
    Glad I found this site. Thank you.

  18. Would it be wrong/silly to say/write “X thought to say something …” ? Wouldn’t someone have to think before speaking? Or could this phrase emphasize that the speaker gave some thought to something before speaking? … Thanks.

  19. In a writing camp I attended during the summer between seventh and eighth grade, my instructors were ADAMANT that the phrase “whether or not” is insufferably redundant, as “whether” alone implies an alternative option. Yet I read this phrase hundreds of times a day in newspapers, magazines, and blogs. Would you all be so kind as to provide me with a consensus on its acceptability in written English? I truly believe we should be much more indulgent of it in spoken language.

  20. I will betray my nerdiness here: One “Final Jeopardy” clue was: “When translated, the name of this baseball team forms a double redundancy.” I’m sure the writers fancied themselves very clever for that last phrase, but it made me want to shatter the TV screen.

    In case you’re interested, the answer was “What are the Los Angeles Angels?”

  21. Explanation in #39 contains one of my favorites: “iterate” means “repeat”, so to “reiterate” is to repeat…again. Even the mighty Mark can err.

  22. “I hate this website.” These are wrong:
    Major Breakthrough
    Invited Guest
    Few In Number
    End Result
    During The Course Of
    Census of Opinion
    Close Proximity
    Collaborate together
    Basic Essentials

  23. If you’ve ever spent time in an airport, then you’ve undoubtedly heard the “last and final” boarding call, that never is the last or final. Or, “final destination”. Wherever my flight might be taking me is never my final destination. Even if the plane crashes, my body will eventually be taken somewhere else.

  24. I just would like to highlight this previous comment, as it’s already been nearly ten years, and this comment has proven to stand the test of time and remain a hilarious rebuttal to this entire piece:

    Steve on October 18, 2011 5:04 pm
    If I were petty and unappreciative (and I’m not), I’d point out that since one should always avoid redundancy, the title of your post may have extra words.

    However, that points out the difference between using words properly for emphasis, as the title, and your 50 examples.

    Well played Steve…well played indeed.

  25. Two more that irritate me:

    1. “off of” as in “you use a spanner to take a nut off of a bolt”
    ‘of’ is redundant.

    2. “period of time” as in “The bank robbers were in and out of the bank in a very short period of time”
    period is time.
    so use either or, not both.

  26. Ay bruh, ain’t nothing wrong with “new beginning.” It means starting over. If you could only begin anything once then it’d be redundant to say “new beginning.”

    And an even better reason why “new beginning” must be taken off this list is because it is possible to have an old beginning. The original first sentence of this comment went as follows: “Pardon me, but I do believe you have made a grave mistake…” That was the old beginning. The new beginning is: “Ay Bruh, ain’t nothing wrong with…”

    So I suggest that you remove said entry from your list, or I will be forced to take legal action

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