## De Morgan's Theorem 1:

The complement of the sum of two or more variables is equal to the product of the complement of the variables.

Electronics Notes

The complement of the sum of two or more variables is equal to the product of the complement of the variables.

In many pulse circuit applications, it is necessary to delay a signal a certain amount of time called delay time. Delay circuits may be classified in two main groups: electronic circuits (e.g.

Counting is frequently required in digital computers and other digital systems to record the number of events occurring in a specified interval of time.

A clock pulse used to operate a flip flop is illustrated in Figure 1(a).

Clipping circuits

Certain applications in electronics require that the upper or lower extremity of a wave be fixed at a specific value In such applications ,a clamping/clamper circuits are used.

The bistable multivibrator has two absolutely stable states. It will remain in whichever state it happens to be until a trigger pulse causes it to switch to the other state.

A multivibrator which generates square waves of its own (i.e without any external trigger pulse) is known as astable multivibrator. It is also called free ramming multivibrator.

Flip flops are used in digital electronics some of its main applications are described below.

The 8086 microprocessor is available with clock frequency of 5, 8 and 10 megahertz. It is an Intel microprocessor and also a 16 bit microprocessor.

The 8051 micro-controller instructions are divided among five functional groups: