Hyphenating Prefixes

By Maeve Maddox

A reader who works with legal transcription has the following question:

There seems to be a trend towards having the prefixes and suffixes separate from the modified noun instead of being attached or hyphenated. What is proper?  Some examples are non negotiable, post surgery, post doctorate, age wise.

The examples given present a variety of forms, not all of which represent a prefix+noun combination.

The prefix non- is added to nouns of action, condition, or quality with the sense of “absence, lack of,” or simply “not.” for example, non-Catholic.

Non- is affixed to adjectives to make them negative. Whether to add a hyphen depends upon whether American or British usage is being observed. The OED hyphenates many words that M-W shows written as one word. For example, M-W gives nonnegotiable, but OED has non-negotiable.

When it comes to another word in the reader’s list, however, both the OED and M-W agree with postdoctorate, although both prefer postdoctoral.

The prefix post- means, “after” or “behind.” It is added to adjectives without a hyphen: postcolonial, postsurgical. Post can be used on its own as a preposition meaning, “after”: “Your mouth will be extremely dry post surgery.” In this context post is a separate word. Added to a noun to create a descriptor, however, post would require a hyphen: “Post-surgery care is vitally important.”

The suffix -wise means, “in the manner of” or “as regards,” as in clockwise, lengthwise, foodwise, etc. This combining form is never separated from the word it’s added to, either by a hyphen or by a space. It can have other meanings, of course. For example, a person is said to be “penny wise, but pound foolish.” In this context wise is a word that means “possessing wisdom”; it is not a suffix.

Hyphenation is not an exact science. Authorities differ regarding the necessity of a hyphen, but I’m reasonably sure that all agree that suffixes aren’t free agents that can stand apart from the words they belong to.

31 Responses to “Hyphenating Prefixes”

  • Rich Wheeler

    1. “Woundn’t nonpseudoscientific be scientific?” Yes, if you care only about denotation. If you care about connotation, you might notice that nonpseudoscientific implies that pseudoscientific “knowledge” exists and a rejection of if it occurs. Reducing the term to scientific could strip a sentence of meaning.

    2. The pronunciation of the initial e- in words must vary regionally. I have the top licenses from the FCC in broadcast engineering and Ham radio, a BS in electronics, and worked three decades in broadcasting and Systems Engineering (primarily on communications, satellite, and missile design).

    I have never, EVER heard electric or effect pronounce with a short i. Normally, they are pronounced with a short e (eh-… and same in BOTH syllables in ‘effect’) or u (uh-). However, I have often heard them pronounced with a long ‘e-‘. (Effective and effectivity have almost always been pronounced with a long e.) You can argue and cite, but such ees my experience. (Or, maybuh thi deefferince ees een how yew per-nounce yur i’s.)

    3. I think an interesting topic would be the differences in the usage of a-/an-, non-, and un-.

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