Parallel Structure Exercise (605)
For each pair of sentences, choose the one that correctly organizes the syntactical elements.
Answers and Explanations
1. The list includes words whose frequency of use is low and that are domain specific.
"Whose" cannot support both phrases that follow: "whose . . . are domain specific" is ungrammatical, and the second phrase requires its own pronoun.
2. Curricula must align with standards within subject areas and across grade levels so that the students’ experiences are cumulative, are coordinated, and support subsequent student learning.
The middle item in this list, "coordinated," requires its own verb.
3. According to interviews and surveys, there is a lack of trust and open communication, as well as a desire for shared decision making.
The sentence is unclear as to whether there is a desire for shared decision making or a lack of a desire, and replacing the final "and" with "as well as" makes it obvious that "desire for" is parallel with, not subordinate to, "lack of."
4. School leaders may foster trusting relationships with staff through supportive behaviors, transparent communications, and clearly articulated roles, expectations, and goals.
This sentence’s list consists of three items, not five; "clearly articulated roles, expectations, and goals" is one item, and, as the final item, it must be preceded by a conjunction.
5. She helped push folk music into the mainstream with hit recordings of Leadbelly’s "Goodnight Irene" and the Hebrew folk song "Tzena Tzena Tzena," as well as recordings such as "If I Had a Hammer," "Kisses Sweeter Than Wine," and "Wimoweh."
Here, the list consists of two items, followed by a separate list tacked onto the sentence; therefore, the first two descriptions of songs must be separated by a conjunction rather than by punctuation.