Modifiers Exercise (527)

Pick the sentence version where modifying phrase is correctly associated with the word or phrase it modifies.

    1.
    Two of the newly discovered large craters—also known as funnels to scientists—have turned into lakes.
    Two of the newly discovered large craters—also known to scientists as funnels—have turned into lakes.

    2.
    An international war crimes tribunal sentenced seven Japanese military and government officials to death, including General Hideki Tojo, for their roles in World War II.
    An international war crimes tribunal sentenced seven Japanese military and government officials, including General Hideki Tojo, to death for their roles in World War II.

    3.
    Jones said he knew that he was going to leave the team before the 2014 season.
    Jones said he knew, before the 2014 season, that he was going to leave the team.

    4.
    We invite you to take a historic look at the Oscars ceremony from 1990, the year this website was founded.
    We invite you to take a historic look at the 1990 Oscars ceremony, the year this website was founded.

    5.
    Because of vaccination programs, measles aren’t supposed to be a concern.
    Measles aren’t supposed to be a concern due to vaccination programs.

Answers and Explanations

1. Two of the newly discovered large craters—also known to scientists as funnels—have turned into lakes.
Scientists call the craters funnels, but the word order in the original version suggests that the craters are known, in general, as "funnels to scientists."

2. An international war crimes tribunal sentenced seven Japanese military and government officials, including General Hideki Tojo, to death for their roles in World War II.
The name of the person included as an example should immediately follow the phrase "government official," not the prepositional phrase that comes after that phrase.

3. Jones said he knew, before the 2014 season, that he was going to leave the team.
The incorrect sentence implies that Jones was aware at some time that he would no longer be playing with the team by the time the season began. However, the meaning is that he was aware before the season began that he would at some point (presumably after that season) no longer be playing with the team, and the modifying phrase "before the 2014 season" should be inserted immediately after the verb "knew" to clarify that fact.

4. We invite you to take a historic look at the Oscars ceremony from 1990, the year this website was founded.
The phrase "the year this website was founded" should immediately follow the reference to the year.

5. Because of vaccination programs, measles aren’t supposed to be a concern.
The original sentence implies that vaccination programs are not supposed to cause concern about measles. The revision clarifies that vaccination programs are the reason measles are not supposed to be a concern.

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